Vision and mathematics are related in several ways. Children with poor visual spatial skills may have difficulties in acquiring the fundamental understanding of the relationship between numbers and value. Memorizing that 2 plus 2 equals 4 has little utility unless the child can appreciate that the numbers 2 and 4 are not simply figures but represent specific magnitudes. Early math teachings usually include methods utilizing visual cues to associate numbers with magnitudes. Visual spatial thinking and the ability to visualize and mentally manipulate shapes also become important for learning higher level math topics such as geometry and trigonometry.
Oculomotor difficulties can also play a role in mathematic by causing “careless” errors such as omission of a number, inadvertent shifting of one number when adding or subtracting, or incorrect copying of math problems from the board or a book. A child who shows good performance with oral arithmetic but poor performance at written arithmetic is highly suspect of for visual interference.